1 Laura Chioda, Work and family Latin American & Caribbean women in search of a new balance (Washington, D.C: World Bank, 2016), 71.
2 UN Women calculation based on information provided by the Permanent Missions to the United Nations.
3 Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), “Detalles del país,” Género y Partidos Políticos en América Latina (GEPPAL), accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.iadb.org/es/investigacion-ydatos/geppal/detalles-del-pais,17693.html?country=MEX.
4 Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), “Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages,” accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm.
5 Gregory R. Day, and Salvatore J. Russo, “Poverty and The Hidden Effects of Sex Discrimination: An Empirical Study of Inequality,” University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, Vol. 37, Iss. 4, 2016, http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1924&context=jil.
6 Jonathan Woetzel, Anu Madgavkar, Kweilin Ellingrud, Eric Labaye, Sandrine Devillard, Eric Kutcher, James Manyika, Richard Dobbs, and Mekala Krishnan, How advancing women’s equality can add $12 trillion to global growth, McKinsey & Company, September 2015, http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/employment-andgrowth/how-advancing-womens-equality-can-add-12-trillion-toglobal-growth.
7 The Clinton Foundation, The Full Participation Project: No Ceilings, accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.noceilings.org/report/report.pdf, 2.
8 Mayra Buvinic, Jacqueline Mazza, Juliana Pungiluppi, and Ruthanne Deutsch, Inclusion social y Desarrollo Economico en America Latina (Washington, D.C: IDB, 2004).
9 Natalija Novta, and Joyce Cheng Wong, “Women at Work in Latin America and the Caribbean,” Working Paper 17/34 (International Monetary Fund, 2017), https://www.imf.org/~/media/Files/Publications/WP/wp1734.ashx.
10 World Economic Forum, “The Global Gender Gap Report 2016,” accessed April 18, 2017, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR16/WEF_Global_Gender_Gap_Report_2016.pdf, 12-19. The Global Gender Gap Index is a metric used by the World Economic Forum to examine parity between men and women’s access to opportunity. The Index is designed to measure genderbased gaps in access to resources and opportunities in countries rather than the actual levels of the available resources and opportunities in those countries. Of the 25 countries covered by the Index in the region this year, 17 have improved their overall score compared to last year, while eight have regressed.
11 Woetzel et al., How advancing women’s equality can add $12 trillion to global growth.
12 Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, December 18, 1979, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CEDAW.aspx. Art.1, of the convention signals what constitutes discrimination, “[The] discrimination against women shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.”
13 La Comisión Económica para América Latina (CEPAL), “Protocolo Facultativo de la Cedaw,” accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.cepal.org/mujer/html/ProtocoloFacultativo.htm. Adopted and open to signing and ratifying, or adhering, to the General Assembly’s 34/180 resolution passed on December 18, 1979. In Latin America, CEDAW has been ratified in all countries except for Honduras, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Cuba, and Chile. In regards to the Caribbean countries, only Antigua & Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts & Nevis have ratified the agreement.
14 United Nations Women, “Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing 1995,” accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/institu.htm. A national machinery for the advancement of women (MAW) is the central policy or coordinating unit inside government. Its main task is to support government-wide mainstreaming of a gender equality perspective in all policy areas.
15 UN Women, “The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women.” September, 1995, http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/pdf/Beijing%20full%20report%20E.pdf. The UN recommended the creation of MAWs in paragraph 57 of its report on the Nairobi conference.
16 Virginia Guzmán and Sonia Montaño, “Políticas Públicas e Institucionalidad de Género en América Latina,” CEPAL (2012), http://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/5847/S1200803_es.pdf, 13-15.
17 Over many years MAW has analyzed issues such as violence against women, adolescents, and girls and have insisted on the necessity to increase efforts when it comes to the implementation of the convention of Belén do Pará, as well as strengthening HIV/ AIDS services, improving access to justice, mitigating the effects of stronger natural disasters due to climate change and, understanding migration and its effects on society, economics, security, and culture.
18 UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), “Level within governmental hierarchy of national Machineries for the Advancement of Women,” Gender Equality Observatory, last updated October 20, 2016, http://oig.cepal.org/en/indicators/level-within-governmental-hierarchy-nationalmachineries-advancement-women.
19 Only six female presidents in LAC have been democratically elected.
20 See Appendix 1 on page 18.
21 Ivan Dikov, “The Amazing Story of Dilma Rousseff – Brazil’s Bulgarian President,” Novinite.com, January 09, 2017, http://www.novinite.com/articles/123972/The+Amazing+Story+of+Dilma+Rousseff+-+Brazil%27s+Bulgarian+President.
22 Lori Beaman, Esther Duflo, Rohini Pande and Petia Topalova, “Political Reservation and Substantive Representation: Evidence from Indian Village Councils” (India Policy Forum, 2010), https://wappp.hks.harvard.edu/files/wappp/files/politicalreservationandsubstantiverepresentation.pdf.
23 Lori Beaman, Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Esther Duflo, Rohini Pande and Petia Topalova, “Powerful women: does exposure reduce bias?” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2009, https://economics.mit.edu/files/3122.
24 Rachel Kubi, “Female Leadership in Latin America,” Politic, last updated February 26, 2012, http://thepolitic.org/the-anomaly-of-female-leadership-in-latin-america/.
25 “Executive Power: Percentage of Women in Ministerial Cabinet Positions,” Gender Equality Observatory, accessed April 18, 2017, http://oig.cepal.org/es/indicadores/poder-ejecutivoporcentaje-mujeres-gabinetes-ministeriales.
26 Nélida Archenti, “El Proceso Hacia la Paridad en América Latina. Argentina y Costa Rica, experiencias Comparadas,” Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones, Republica de Costa Rica, Revista Derecho Electoral (2014), No. 17, http://www.tse.go.cr/revista/art/17/nelida_archenti.pdf; “Quota Database,” Global Database of Quotas for Women, accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.quotaproject.org/.
27 Lenita Freidenvall, and Drude Dahlerup, “Electoral Gender Quota Systems and their Implementation in Europe,” European Parliament (2013), http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/note/join/2013/493011/IPOL-FEMM_NT(2013)493011_EN.pdf.
28 Lenita Freidenvall, and Drude Dahlerup, “Electoral Gender Quota Systems and their Implementation in Europe,” European Parliament (2013).
29 In 1999, it was established that “authorities will guarantee the adequate and effective participation of women at the levels decided by Public Administration” permitting the appropriation of the Ley de Cuotas which follows the “critical mass” idea of the United Nations and the accepted percentage for Colombia in the Beijing Platform of 30 percent.
30 UN Women, Declaration and Platform for Action of Beijing, 1995, last updated 2014, http://www.unwomen.org/~/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/csw/bpa_s_final_web.pdf. Recommendation by the Declaration and Platform for Action of Beijing 1995 in its strategy objective G.1., “Adopt the means to guarantee women access to equality and the full participation in structures of power and decision making.”
31 “Facts and Figures: Leadership and Political Participation,” UN Women, last updated August, 2016, http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/leadership-and-political-participation/facts-and-figures.
32 IDB, “Indice de Igualdad Parpidaria en América Latina 2011/2012,” accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.iadb.org/es/investigacion-ydatos/geppal/inicio,18161.html. Guyana and Haiti have quotas, but they were not included in this table.
33 IDB, “Indice de Igualdad Parpidaria en América Latina”; Uruguay’s quota law is no longer in effect. It was only in effect for the 2014 elections.
34 Woetzel et al., How advancing women’s equality can add $12 trillion to global growth.
35 Daniel Victor, “Women in Company Leadership Tied to Stronger Profits, Study Says,” New York Times, February 09, 2016, https:// www.nytimes.com/2016/02/10/business/women-in-companyleadership-tied-to-stronger-profits.html?ref=nyt-es&_r=3&mtrref=undefined&gwh=17278062E8AD8F5BB919E8C0D6238B98&gwt=pay.
36 Victor, “Women in Company Leadership.”
38 Linda-Eling Lee, Ric Marshall, Damion Rallis, and Matt Moscardi, “Women on Boards: Global Trends in Gender Diversity,” MSCI ESG Research Inc., November 2015, https://www.msci.com/documents/10199/04b6f646-d638-4878-9c61-4eb91748a82b.
39 Marcus Noland et al., “Is Gender Diversity Profitable? Evidence from a Global Survey,” Working Paper Series 16-3, Peterson Institute for International Economics, February 2016, https://piie.com/publications/wp/wp16-3.pdf.
40 “Solo el 5% de Mujeres Ocupa Cargos Importantes en Empresas de América,” Univision, last updated October 8, 2013, http://www.univision.com/noticias/economia/solo-el-5-de-mujeres-ocupacargos-importantes-en-empresas-de-america.
41 Marcus Noland, Tyler Moran, and Barbara Kotschwar, “Is Gender Diversity Profitable? Evidence from a Global Survey,” Working Paper Series 16-3, Peterson Institute for International Economics, February 2016, https://piie.com/publications/wp/wp16-3.pdf.
42 Linda-Eling Lee et al., “Women on Boards: Global Trends in Gender Diversity,” MSCI ESG Research Inc., November 2015, https://www.msci.com/documents/10199/04b6f646-d638-4878-9c61-4eb91748a82b.
43 Dawson, Kersley, and Natella, “The CS Gender 3000.”
44 Dan Konigsburg, Betty Yuen, Joan Withers, Cheryl Bachelder, Maureen Sabia, and Agnès Touraine, “Women in the Boardroom: A Global Perspective,” Deloitte, 2015, https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Risk/gx-ccg-women-inthe-boardroom-a-global-perspective4.pdf.
45 Manuela Artigas, Maria Novales-Flamarique, and Heloisa Callegaro, Women Matter: a Latin American Perspective, McKinsey & Company, May 2013, http://www.femtech.at/sites/default/files/Women%20Matter%20Latin%20America.pdf.
46 Line Bareiro, Oscar López, Clyde Soto, and Lilian Soto, “Sistemas Electorales y Representación Femenina en América Latina” (Santiago de Chile: CEPAL 2004), http://archivo.cepal.org/pdfs/2003/S0312888.pdf. The Quotas are a form of positive action with the objective to guarantee the effective integration of women in elective positions of decision of the political parties and of the state. This is a compulsory measure, which forces women to be included in candidate lists or lists of electoral results; it is also transitional, since it implies a validity subject to overcoming the obstacles that impede the adequate representation of women in the spaces of power and political representation.
47 Line Bareiro et al., “Sistemas Electorales y Representación Femenina en América Latina” (Santiago de Chile: CEPAL 2004), http://archivo.cepal.org/pdfs/2003/S0312888.pdf. The Quotas are a form of positive action with the objective to guarantee the effective integration of women in elective positions of decision of the political parties and of the state. This is a compulsory measure, which forces women to be included in candidate lists or lists of electoral results; it is also transitional, since it implies a validity subject to overcoming the obstacles that impede the adequate representation of women in the spaces of power and political representation.
48 Evarts Anosovs, Eva-Maria Poptcheva, and Giulio Sabbati, “Infographic: Women in Parliaments,” European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), January 2015, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/ATAG/2015/545717/EPRS_ATA(2015)545717_REV1_EN.pdf.
49 Cecilia Paz Valenzuela Oyaneder and Alenjandra Zuniga Fajuri, “Leyes de cuotas electorales, Constitución y democracia,” Revista de Derecho, Vol. XXVII, No. 1, July 2014, http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/revider/v27n1/art09.pdf, 192.
50 “Act for Equal Participation of Women and Men in Leadership Positions in Private and Public Sectors,” Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang, April 30, 2015, http://www.bundesgerichtshof.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Bibliothek/Gesetzesmaterialien/18_ wp/gleichberechtigte_Teilhabe/bgbl.pdf;jsessionid=9ED0C42B1D BE07CD3A0CDA3A2E257405.2_cid329?__blob=publicationFile.
51 “Alemania,” Revista de Actualidad, No. 194, Gobierno de España, October 2015, http://www.empleo.gob.es/es/mundo/Revista/Revista194/145.pdf.
53 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), “Employment Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Recent Improvements and Persistent Gaps in Rural Employment”, No. 14, May 2016, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/---sro-santiago/documents/publication/wcms_480313.pdf. According to ECLAC, the economic situation in distinct countries within the region was heterogeneous in 2015. However, in Central America, Mexico, the Dominican Republic and, the Caribbean countries unemployment rates were more favorable than those of South American countries, whose unemployment rate was driven, alongside other factors, by the impact of external markets and rising inflation levels.
54 Silva Monge, Mónica, “Los MAM, feminismo y política nacional” (Santiago de Chile, 2016).
55 Comments made during during Bárcena’s speech at the October 2016 UN-ECLAC regional conference in Montevideo.
56 ECLAC-UN, “XIII Regional Conference on Women Opens with Strong Condemnation of Gender Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean,” October 25, 2016, http://www.cepal.org/es/comunicados/fuerte-condena-la-violencia-genero-america-latina-caribe-seinauguro-la-xiii-conferencia.
57 UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), “Distribution of Total Employed Population by Productivity Level and Sex,” Gender Equality Observatory, http://oig.cepal.org/en/indicators/distribution-total-employed-population-productivity-level-andsex.
58 Zenyazen Flores, “México con la Tasa de de Participación Laboral Femenina Más Baja,” El Financiero, last updated March 06, 2015, http://www.elfinanciero.com.mx/economia/mexico-con-la-tasade-participacion-laboral-femenina-mas-baja.html.
59 International Labor Organization (ILO), “Statistical Update on Employment in the Informal Economy,” Department of Statistics, June 2012, http://laborsta.ilo.org/applv8/data/INFORMAL_ECONOMY/2012-06-Statistical%20update%20-%20v2.pdf.
60 María del Pilar Martínez, “Creció brecha salarial por género en México: OCDE,” El Economista, last updated July 10, 2016, http://eleconomista.com.mx/industrias/2016/07/10/crecio-brechasalarial-genero-mexico-ocde.
61 Diana J. Nehro, “Mexico Labor Reforms Increase Protection for Employees and Clarity for Employers,” Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), last updated February 12, 2013, https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/global-hr/pages/mexico-labor-reforms.aspx.
62 Government of the Republic of United Mexican States, “Political-Electoral Reform in Mexico (2014),” Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación, http://portales.te.gob.mx/ccje/sites/default/files/2014%20Political%20Electoral%20Reform%20in%20Mexico_1.pdf.
63 Government of the Republic of United Mexican States, “Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2013-2018,” accessed April 18, 2017, http://pnd.gob.mx/.
64 United Nations Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Mexico, December 11, 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52f8bfed4.html.
65 Government of the Republic of United Mexican States, “Programa Nacional Para El Desarrollo y la Inclusión de las Personas con Discapacidad,” Diario Oficial de la Federación, April 30, 2014, http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5343100&fecha=30/04/2014.
66 GEPPAL, “México.” Parties include: Movimiento Ciudadano, Partido de Accion Nacional, Partido de la Revolucion Democratica, Partido Revolucionario Institucional, and Partido Verde Ecologista de México.
67 Vivian Roza, and Beatriz Llanos, Partidos Políticos y Paridad: Un desafío de la democracia en América Latina (IDB, 2015), https://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/handle/11319/7356/int320.PDF?sequence=1.
69 IDB, “Índice de Igualdad Partidaria en América Latina,” GEPPAL, last updated 2011, http://www.iadb.org/es/investigacion-y-datos/geppal/inicio,18161.html.
70 World Economic Forum, “The Global Gender Gap Report,” 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR16/WEF_Global_Gender_Gap_Report_2016.pdf.
71 Ibid. Mexico’s score is 0.7 out of 1, where 1 represents gender parity.
72 Ibid. In the opportunity sub-index, Mexico’s score is 0.544.
73 Centro de Investigación de la Mujer en la Alta Dirección (CIMAD), “Estadísticas Sobre Mujeres y Empresarias en México,” 2014.
74 CIMAD, “Estadísticas sobre mujeres y empresarias en México,” Centro de Investigación de la Mujer en la Alta Dirección, 2013, http://fec-chiapas.com.mx/sistema/noticias_files/Estad%C3%ADsticas%20sobre%20mujeres%20empresarias%20en%20M%C3%A9xico.pdf.
75 “Evaluación de Gobierno: Febrero 2017,” Adimark, accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.adimark.cl/es/estudios/dinamica.asp?id=397.
76 World Economic Forum, “Results and Analysis (2016),” accessed April 18, 2017, http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gapreport-2016/results-and-analysis/. In that regard, Chile has a score of 0.565 out of 1.
77 World Economic Forum, “The Global Gender Gap Report.”
78 Gobierno de Chile, “Infórmate Sobre las Tres Casuales,” accessed April 18, 2017, http://3causales.gob.cl/. At the start of her second term, Michelle Bachelet introduced a bill that decriminalizes abortion in three extreme circumstances. The project moved on to the second round of the Constitutional process, despite difficulties.
79 Diario El Mercurio de Santiago de Chile, de 25 de octubre de 2016.
80 “Iniciativa de Paridad de Género Chile,” Comunidad Mujer, accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.comunidadmujer.cl/ iniciativa-de-paridad-de-genero/.
81 “Presencia de Mujeres Chilenas en Directorios de Empresas del IPSA pasa de 1% a 5.4% en cuatro años,” Economia y Negocios Online, last updated March 08, 2015, http://www.economiaynegocios.cl/noticias/noticias.asp?id=137144.
82 Dawson, Kersley, and Natella, “The CS Gender 3000.” From YE13-mid 16, the outperformance of companies with 25 percent senior women is a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 2.8 percent, 4.7 percent for 33 percent and 10.3 percent for those over 50 percent compared with a 1 percent annual decline for the MSCI ACWI over the same period.
83 It should be noted that numbers can differ according to the sample of companies under study.
84 Government of Chile, “Presencia Femenina en Directorios de Empresas Publicas Bordeo el 30% en 2015,” SEP, Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Turismo, last updated February 21, 2016, http://www.sepchile.cl/prensa/noticias/noticias/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=438&cHash=2d08f9e4637af522a70fc23c91a5906a.
85 “Hermana de Evo: Las Mujeres tenemos Derecho de Opinar y Reclamar,” Facebook post, January 17, 2012, https://www.facebook.com/notes/bolivia/hermana-de-evo-las-mujerestenemos-derecho-de-opinar-y-dereclamar/10150507086603611/.
86 “Latest News,” Inter-Parliamentary Union, accessed April 18, 2017, www.ipu.org.
87 ILO, La mujer en la gestión empresarial Cobrando impulso, 2015, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_335674.pdf.
88 World Economic Forum, “The Global Gender Gap,” 114-5.
89 ILO, “Women in Business and Management: Gaining Momentum” 2015, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_316450.pdf.
90 Vivian Roza, Beatriz Llanos, and Gisela Garzón de la Roza, Gender and Political Parties International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) and Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), 2011.
91 “Business in the Blood,” Economist, November 01, 2014, accessed April 18, 2017, http://www.economist.com/news/business/21629385-companies-controlled-founding-families-remainsurprisingly-important-and-look-set-stay.
92 Eda Cleary, “La Bancarrota del Feminismo Cupular en Chile,” El Mostrador, September 20, 2016, http://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/pais/2016/09/20/la-bancarrota-del-feminismo-cupularen-chile/.